USSR state planning board recommends siting of nuclear power station (NPP) using reactor of RMBK design near village of Kopaci in the Kiev region. The site was chosen after a survey of 16 other locations around the Kiev, Vinnitsa and Zhitomir regions. Located on marginal lands on the right bank of the Pripyat river, 12km from the town of Chernobyl. The location meets all water, transportation and sanitary requirements.
The Resolution the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers approved the recommendations of the USSR State Planning Committee to host the nuclear power plant near the village of Kopaci in the Kiev area. Future station was given the title of Chernobyl.
Application of RBMK-1000 reactors at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was determined by joint decision of the Ministry of Energy of the USSR and the Minsredmash of Soviet Union on the development basis of the Ural Branch of the Institute Teploenergoproekt with further design institute Hydroproject.
Considered the beginning of construction of the city of Pripyat - was scored first peg, construction of hostel number 1, construction management office, dining room number 1, the assembly of the village "Lesnoy".
Сounting pit under the 1-st unit of the Chernobyl NPP started. Together with the introduction of the first facilities at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the first houses in the village of the builders of Pripyat were put in operation. In June 1971 Labout Committee took the first 90-apartment building. In August 1971, was taken into operation basic facilities of the village: a startup complex of water supply, sewerage and heating.
Completed the construction of transmission lines 110 kV of substation Chernobyl.
The permanent commission the objects of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant submission was created.
Birthday of the Pripyat. On this day, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of USSR gave a name 'Pripyat' to the village in honor of the river on which it was built. A little later, on 24 April 1972, according to the decision of the Executive Committee of the Kiev Oblast Council of Deputies town of Pripyat categorized as urban village .
On 11 o'clock in the morning was ceremonially laid the first cubic meter of concrete in the foundation of deaerator of the main building of the first stage station. In addition, a stainless steel capsule buried with the letter to future generations.
Start filling the cooling pond.
The team of installers, builders, engineers and operational personnel Chernobyl began pre-commissioning work on the 1-m unit.
Signed an inspection report on the first unit operation at Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
The first unit was put on the power of 1000 MW.
Began physical launch of the second power unit. December 19 NPP workers began to rise a reactor power of the second unit. December 21 was included at network turbogenerator № 3.
The turbogenerator № 4 gave first current. The act of acceptance of the second unit was signed.
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant worked out the first ten billion kilowatt-hours
Power unit number 2 was put into a project capacity of 1 000 MW.
The first phase of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant consisting of two units reached the the project capacity 2,000 MW.
The village of power engineers the Pripyat acquires the status of the city. Conducted the first tests of Duga "Chernobyl-2 " (the "Arc") of the State Commission.
750 kV transmission line was put into operation.
Implemented energy launch of the third unit.
At the Chernobyl NPP was produced the first 50 billion kWh of electricity.
The third unit has reached the project capacity of 1 000 MW
After the mid-routine repairs during the trial run of the reactor Unit 1 at the thermal power of 700 MW at nominal parameters of coolant has occurred the destruction of the fuel assembly and an emergency break the technological channel № 62-44.
The first fuel assembly was loaded into the reactor of 4-th unit.
The 4-th unit was put into a designed capacity of 1000 MW to 3 months earlier than scheduled.
At the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was produced the first 100 billion kWh of electricity.
Kiev publishing house "Mistetstvo" signed print album "Pripyat", about the one of the youngest cities of Ukraine — the Pripyat, which owes its appearance to the construction of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the labour accomplishments of his famous residents, the prospects of atomic city. The album was released a circulation of 25,000 copies in 1986.
During testing on the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP the reactor explosion occured, which completely destroyed reactor.The building of unit partially collapsed, killing 2 people - the operator of MCPs (main coolant pump) Valery Hodemchuk (body not found, was littered in the rubble of two 130-ton drum-separators), and the employee start-up company, Vladimir Shashenok (died from a fracture spine and multiple burns at 6:00 in the Pripyat NFM, in the morning on April 26). In different rooms and on the roof caught fire. 190 tons of radioactive substances were emitted into the atmosphere. 8 out of 140 tons of radioactive reactor fuel have been in the air. Other dangerous substances continued to leave the reactor in a fire that lasted nearly two weeks. According to Decree of the Council of Ministers № 830 the governmental commission was established to investigate the causes and aftermath of the Chernobyl. Chairman of the committee was appointed Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers B.E. Shcherbina. The accident is regarded as the largest of its kind in the history of nuclear power, as alleged by the number of dead and injured from the consequences of people and the economic damage.
Request from the Director of Chernobyl nuclear power plant concerning the evacuation of Pripyat to the chairman of the Governmental Commission without a clear picture of the radiological situation at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and in the city. Permission not forthcame.
By 15 hours, 26 April 1986. was reliably established that the reactor is destroyed, and of its collapse into the atmosphere come huge amounts of radioactive substances.
The discussion in the Governmental Commission the question about the evacuation of people from Pripyat.
Arrival of motor transport in the disaster area and its concentration at the turn of Chernobyl: Buses - 1225 (in 144 buses has been established transport and sanitary facilities), trucks - 360. In addition on Yanov railway station were prepared two DMUs for 1500 seats.
Chairman of the Governmental Commission in a small meeting, announced that he has decided to evacuate the city in the afternoon of 27.04.1986.
At the meeting the chairman of the Governmental Commission gave the local party and Soviet authorities guidance and announced the evacuation order (the time and date officially declared the decision of the Government Commission on the evacuation of Pripyat is considered to be 12.00, the 27/04/1986).
Transmission to local radio reports of the Pripyat City Council about the evacuation.
Workaround of houses by police.
Gathering residents of Pripyat at entrances of their houses.
Submission of Buses to the collection site (the beginning of the evacuation of Pripyat).
Evacuation: string of 20 buses and 5 trucks were sent for people and personal property in Pripyat at intervals of 10 minutes, accompanied by traffic police.
Repeated door-to-door round of houses by police officers (identified 20 people who tried to evade the the evacuation)
April 27 - May 10 - Backfilling of protective materials from helicopters into the collapse of the 4-th power.
Decided to evacuate people from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl nuclear power plant and other populated areas affected by radioactive contamination. Power units № 1,2,3 transferred to the interim regime preservation.
Staff of Chernobyl nuclear power plant released from the water the first floor of the basin-bubbler unit 4 in order to eliminate the contact of melted fuel with water masses. The sharp decline in power output. The beginning of decontamination of the territory buildings and structures of Chernobyl nuclear power plant and town of Prypiat.
Secret protocol number 9, on May 8, 1986 USSR Ministry of Health has approved new standards of acceptable levels of public exposure of radiation, exceeding the previous 10 times. In special cases, these standards may increase to levels higher than the previous 50 times.
Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers "On the conduct decontamination work in the areas of the Ukrainian SSR and Byelorussian SSR, which exposed to radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl accident. "
The government commission decided on a long-term preservation of the destroyed reactor. The implementation of this task was complicated by extremely high gamma radiation fields, the lack of reliable information on the extent of destruction and state structures 4 blocks, the lack of experience in the elimination of such accidents in the world.
May 20 - July 15 - The first phase of construction of the Shelter. Exploration of the space to expand construction work (removal of sources of radiation, decontamination). Manufacturing of designs and elements of the OS. Infrastructure creation (concrete plants, transport communications, social infrastructure, etc.).
In the cable tunnels of facilities MCP engines and shafts of sunk pipelines of the fourth accidental unit due to a short circuit in the power cable 3rd and 4 th units caused a fire that lasted about 7 hours. The works on the Elimination have been hampered due to of high levels of radiation arising from the accident on April 26. The participation in extinguishing the fire took 268 firefighters who have received substantial doses of radiation.
June 3 - June 28 - The construction of the heat exchanger under the reactor's basement.
In accordance with Order № 394 of the USSR Ministry of Energy staff Chernobyl nuclear power plant translated into a rotational basis of work (15-15).
Finished the first stage decontamination of units in rooms of the first stage (1 st and 2 nd units)
July 16 - September 15 - The second phase of construction of the Shelter. Performing the bulk of construction work.
Decided to conduct an additional evacuation of settlements in connection with the accident.
At the second stage of Chernobyl nuclear power plant made dissection of communications that are common to third and 4 th units, built a concrete separation wall in the engine room.
In the immediate proximity of accidental unit of the fourth the derailment of 180-ton railcar container with spent nuclear fuel occurred. To eliminate the consequences of this soldiers were involved in railway troops of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR. The Restoration path took two days, also it took several hours for recovery and cleaning of the station-wagon container.
September 15 - November 30 - The third phase construction of the Shelter. End of construction works.
In the Chernobyl zone was a concert Alla Pugacheva to participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident. Pugacheva has become one of the first stars of the Soviet music, who visited the area.
Again launched the first unit and at 16 h 47 min it was connected to the grid.
Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers "On the construction of the new city of residence of workers of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant".
Near the 4-th power unit, tripped over a crane crashed Mi-8 helicopter, a crew of 4 people died.
The Government Commission adopted the "Conclusion of the reliability and durability of structural coverage, as well as radiation safety of the reactor compartment unit № 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant". Regarding the life of the object in the document reads: "Due to the fact that the cover of the reactor compartment is constructed on the ruined structures and in conditions of high radiation environment and, given the complexity of the installation of structures and control their position, have no possibility to obtain reliable data on their carrier ability. The same document states: "Given the low rate of corrosion in the structural work carried out under protective coatings can be considered as secured their life: from tubes 30-40 years of beams - 30 years. "
For operation of systems and equipment of the Shelter organized the reactor hall of the fourth unit.
Produced by the post-accident power unit № 2.
Construction of the "Shelter" (so-called "sarcophagus") completed by signing of the Act of the State Acceptance Commission. Canned fourth unit received for maintenance. The construction lasted 206 days and nights from June to November 1986. In it participated directly only to the builders about 90 thousand people. During 1986 - 1987, in the Chernobyl area employed approximately 200,000 people.
November 24, 1987 started the physical start of the third power of the reactor, the energy launch took place on December 4. December 31, 1987 decision of the Government Commission № 473 approved the certificate of acceptance into operation the third power unit Chernobyl nuclear power plant after the repair works.
To reduce the removal of radioactive aerosols in the environment since the end of 1989 the facility was put into operation a stationary dust suppression system for the application of various chemical compounds in surface of the "collapse", which allowed about 10 times to reduce the "slack" removal of activity from of the Shelter .
The Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR and the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR, to determine the time decommissioning of reactors of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1995. On May 17 The Council of Ministers issued a decree on the development of the program of decommissioning of reactors. On August 2 of the same year the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR declared a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power plants and to increase the capacity of existing for a period of five years.
In the result of a strong fire in the engine room is stopped the 2 nd unit, also damaged the roof of machine room. The fire served as the basis for the decision of the Supreme Council of Ukraine on an immediate shutdown and decommissioning of the second power unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, as well as to stop the first and third units in 1993.
The moratorium of 1990 on the construction of new nuclear power plants was prematurely removed, and the proposal of the Cabinet of Ministers decided to continue operating the Chernobyl nuclear power plant for a period determined by its condition.
Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Ukraine, the Governments of the Group of Seven and the Commission of the European Union, under which started the development program of complete closure of the station by 2000.
Completely stopped the reactor Unit 1 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
Cabinet of Ministers Decision considered expedient to make the early decommissioning of the power unit № 1, stopped 30 November 1996.
The Law of Ukraine, defining features of the legal relationship at the time of Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the future of early decommissioning of units, convert the destroyed fourth unit in an ecologically safe system, as well as the protection of personnel
Cabinet of Ministers Decision considered expedient to make the early decommissioning of power unit number 2, stopped after the accident in 1991.
Cabinet of Ministers agreed on the early decommissioning of power unit number 3 and final closure of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant before the end of 2000.
In order to release kHOYaT-1 and ChNPP of spent nuclear fuel and waste additional absorbers were released by Cabinet decision of November 29, 2000 № 1747 of the need to build a storage facility for spent nuclear fuel dry type.
December 15, 2000 in 13 hours 17 minutes on the orders of the President of Ukraine during the broadcast teleconference Chernobyl NPP - National palace "Ukraine" by turning the key emergency protection of the fifth level (AS-5) all stopped reactor unit № 3 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The station stopped generating electricity. At the time of closing the Chernobyl nuclear power plant operated 9,051 people.
Was put into operation the industrial and heating boiler (BOCOG), intended for heating facilities site after final shutdown of power units, hot water and steam required to operate facilities for handling spent fuel and radioactive waste.
According to Presidential Decree of 25 September 2000 № 1084/2000 Chernobyl nuclear power plant was reorganized into State Specialized Enterprise Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant
Obtained a license of the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine for the operation of the Shelter and its transformation into ecologically safe system.
State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine issued a license for the SSE ChNPP decommissioning the Chernobyl NPP.
Stationary dust suppression system in the OS upgraded, which increased coverage for dust suppression compositions.
Chernobyl nuclear power plant transferred to the sphere of management of Emergencies of Ukraine
CEO SSE ChNPP becomes Gramotkin Igor.
The site PRIPYAT.com together with the newspaper "Literaturna Ukraine" initiates the collection of signatures to save the town of Pripyat.
At the Chernobyl NPP held events on the 20 th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster.
Rally starts on the route Moscow-Kiev-Chernobyl-Pripyat. Motor Rally held to draw public attention to of Pripyat as well as to protect the city not just from looters and vandals, but also from excessive damage.
On 1 January 2009 completed bringing the reactors blocks № 1,2. to the state "definitively suspended".
Under construction plant for processing liquid radioactive waste. LRTP is designed for processing liquid radioactive waste accumulated during the operation and those that formed in the process of decommissioning the Chernobyl NPP.
At this time, the activities of the Chernobyl NPP is carried on the following areas:
- support in a safe condition Stopped Chernobyl NPP Units;
- ensuring nuclear and radiation safety;
- decommissioning of Chernobyl nuclear power plant reactors;
- handling to nuclear fuel;
- radioactive waste management;
- preparing for the Chernobyl nuclear power plant decommissioning;
- ensuring ongoing security of the "Shelter";